Journal Article

RANS-based Optimization of a T-shaped Hydrofoil Considering Junction Design


Y. Liao, A. Yildirim, J. R. R. A. Martins, and Y. L. Young


Ocean Engineering, 262112051, 2022



Hydrodynamic lifting surfaces usually include junctions. High-fidelity simulations are necessary to capture critical physics near these regions, such as separation, junction vortices, and cavitation. We present RANS-based hydrodynamic optimizations of a T-shaped hydrofoil, including changes in the junction geometry. The optimized hydrofoils avoid separation and delay cavitation compared to the baseline. The full optimization design with planform, cross-section, and junction geometry variables yields a total drag reduction of 6.4%. The optimized results show that the relative locations of the maximum foil thickness and the maximum strut thickness significantly impact the junction cavitation. Including the translation between the strut and the foil and more strut geometric variables as design variables will provide further improvement. The comparison between optimized designs demonstrates that optimizing planform and detailed junction geometry provides further improvement in addition to designing the cross-sectional geometry. The Hydrostructural analyses show that the optimized T-foils have lower stress at the junction than the baseline because of the resultant junction fairing. However, these hydrodynamic-optimized T-foils have higher deformation and maximum stress, which could result in accelerated fatigue, highlighting the need for hydrostructural responses in design optimization. The results demonstrate that the developed methodology is useful for designing next-generation complex hydrodynamic lifting surfaces.