|Title||Scalable parallel approach for high-fidelity steady-state aeroelastic analysis and adjoint derivative computations|
|Publication Type||Journal Articles|
|Authors||Kenway, GKW, Kennedy, GJ, Martins, JRRA|
Aeroelastic systems achieve the best performance when the aerodynamic shape and structural sizing are optimized concurrently, but such an optimization is challenging when high-fidelity aerodynamic and structural models are required. This paper addresses this challenge through several significant improvements. Fully coupled NewtonKrylov methods are presented for the solution of aerostructural systems and for the corresponding adjoint systems. The coupled adjoint method presented can compute gradients with respect to thousands of multidisciplinary design variables accurately and efficiently. This is enabled by several improvements in the computation of the multidisciplinary terms in the coupled adjoint. The parallel scalability of the methods is demonstrated for a full aircraft configuration using an Euler computational fluid dynamics model with more than 8 million variables and a detailed structural finite element model of the wing with millions of degrees of freedom. The coupled Newton–Krylov methods are shown to improve the convergence rate of both the aerostructural solution and the coupled adjoint derivative computations. Gradient computations of aerodynamic and structural functions with respect to both aerodynamic shape and structural sizing variables are verified, and scaling is demonstrated to thousands variables. The accuracy and scalability of the presented methods make it possible to perform aerostructural optimizations of full aircraft configurations with respect to hundreds of external shape and structural sizing design variables, leading to optimal aeroelastic tailoring.